Protein can control appetite hormones

Control appetite hormones with protein

Protein reduces the hunger hormone ghrelin, while it boosts the appetite-reducing hormones GLP-1, peptide YY and cholecystokinin. This leads to a reduction in calorie intake automatically.

Obesity continues to be an important medical and public health issue that affects the lives of more than 144 million Americans (66%) (1). According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Studies’ prevalence data, almost all Americans will become overweight and obese within thirty years. If long-term preventative and/or treatment strategies aren’t implemented, this is a likely scenario.

Control appetite hormones with protein, in fact many protein diets have been developed to promote “optimal weight reduction” through decreased food intake and appetite. The two most popular diets that promote better weight management are increased protein intake and increased eating frequency.

There is strong scientific evidence to support the inclusion of additional dietary proteins for weight control and appetite management. However, there are many variables that can influence these outcomes. Most studies focus on the effect of increased eating frequency on daily energy expenditure. (Review by Bellisle and al. Most studies have not found any impact, or even a slight change in these outcomes.

Now, researchers are focusing their attention on the opposite side of energy balance by studying the effects of eating frequency and appetite control on food intake. Some, but not all studies have shown that eating more frequently has been associated with decreased hunger and increased satiety as well as decreased food intake.

These discrepancies could be due to the large range of eating frequency that has been arbitrarily classified as infrequent eating and frequent eating, which are defined as eating more than one meal per day.

Perceived hunger and fullness during the eleven-hour testing period following the dietary proteins and eating frequency treatments. *Main effects Period III: Time 480-620 minutes.

The impact of increased protein intake and higher eating frequency

Our objective was to present scientific evidence on the impact of increased protein intake and higher eating frequency on appetite perceptions and hormone responses in obese and overweight men.

Eating frequency and dietary protein had no impact on hunger perceptions and were associated with inconsistent or conflicting insulin, glucose and ghrelin reactions.

The elevated levels of PYY observed in people who eat more protein than normal and the lower PYY levels associated with regular vs. occasional eating further support these findings. This data supports the existing literature that dietary protein increases satiety. It also refutes the old assumption that eating more often leads to better appetite control.

Summary: The findings that increased protein intake and reduced eating frequency both independently increase daily perceived satisfaction, in combination with similar differences in PYY indicate that obese and overweight men may be able to control their appetite by having three more protein-rich meals each day.